• Considerations
  • Components of the WAF
  • How the Cluster Works
    • Gotchas
    • Applying Updates
  • Take Care

In this post, I talk through how the Barracuda CloudGen WAF can be configured and deployed on Azure. There are a few points which I record from recent experience with using the WAF.

For reference, feel free to checkout my Github where you can access an ARM template to get started with deploying the Barracuda CloudGen WAF on your Azure subscription:

or alternatively, you can download the Template from here:


  1. The template deploys PAYG licensed version of Barracuda CloudGen WAF – consider the Bring-Your-Own-License option if you are procuring your license separately
  2. You will need to decide how you would like to provision the configuration of your WAF. Your options are as follows:
  • NO_BOOTSTRAPING – in which case the appliance will be deployed but no configuration will be applied e.g. WAF rules, etc
  • BASIC_SERVICE_BOOTSTRAP – this configures a Basic Service on the WAF – no doubt, you will have additional configuration to follow, once deployed
  • BACKUP_BASED_BOOTSTRAP – (default within the template) deploy your WAF based on the configuration of a backup file. If using this method, take a Backup from a device with the same configuration you intend to provision. Note: when deploying via this method, settings do not retain time and region settings. 
  1. This template contains default parameters. It’s highly recommended that you create your own parameters file giving context to all settings defined within the WAF
  2. The variable userData is used to define all data required for: connecting to Azure – used for scaling, load-balancer configuration, etc; defining the location of the backup file – if Backup BACKUP_BASED_BOOTSTRAP method is being used; some user info; and, more. If deploying instances of this VMSS across multiple environments, you’ll need to plan your ARM template structure accordingly.

Components of the WAF

As mentioned, the WAF in this instance is built within a Virtual Machine Scale Set (VMSS). This allows for scaling to meet demand on a schedule or performance metric. It also provides a level of redundancy, particularly, if updates are required.

The WAF is fronted by an Azure Load Balancer (ALB – Basic SKU) which is configured by the WAF itself, hence the Azure configuration mentioned above. As the Barracuda Cluster increases nodes, as a result of the VMSS scaling-out, the WAF updates the ALB with appropriate NAT settings, etc. However, you should review this configuration within the template prior to the initial deployment.

As you would imagine, the ALB, has a Public IP (Basic SKU) attached.

Where the WAF is deployed via BACKUP_BASED_BOOTSTRAP, a storage account is required.

How the cluster works

The first node within the VMSS, node 0, is designated as Master. Every node thereafter, added to the configuration of the cluster, is a Peer. Therefore, it is recommended that you enable inbound NAT configuration in order to access to the MGMT interface of the Master, apply your configuration updates or changes – these changes, in turn, will automatically synchronise to the peers – providing the configuration of the cluster has been defined.


If you experience any issues with changes being updated to the peer, you can:

  • intiate a fresh sync from the master node – using the Synchonize Configuration tab; or,
  • as a last resort, you can scale-in your VMSS, and back out again.

Applying Updates

Firmware updates are straightforward to apply. These can be managed from within the interface on each node.

As with VMSS images, and image updates – or even vertical scaling (Scale-Up or Scale-Down) activity – will only take effect by applying Upgrade from within the Azure portal. Unfortunately, this means that the WAF Cluster, between the master and peers, breaks-down. Therefore, I suggest the following process to ensure that updates can be actioned without taking your services offline:

  1. Ensure the VMSS has at least two instances.
  2. On the ALB, remove/disable the configuration passing traffic to the master node – ensuring that all traffic is passed to the peer(s)
  3. Update the master node instance from within the Azure portal
  4. Bring the master node back in to operation by adding/enabling the configuration within the ALB
  5. Scale-in the VMSS to one instance, and when completed
  6. Scale-out to your desired number of instances. Each of the peers will establish themselves within the WAF cluster, register with the ALB, and have configuration synced by the master.

Take Care

  1. It’s highly recommend to test the process for applying updates prior to Go-Live and the first run when in Production
  2. Once deployed, subsequent deployments via ARM template should only be cautiously considered. Again, test this and become familiar with the behaviour
  3. Remember, the Bootstrapping process is at deployment stage via the ARM template. Therefore, when scaling nodes, ensure that the cluster status is healthy so that Service configuration has been synchronised – failure to do this will result in traffic being NAT’ed by the ALB to a node that is sterile.